RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOMATOTYPE AND LONGITUDINAL BODY SIZES IN THE PRACTICALLY HEALTHY CHILDREN OF 6-8 YEARS OLD AND THEIR YEARLING WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
Ключові слова:somatotype, children of primary school age, disorders of hearing, hearing impairment
Introduction. Somatotype is a form of manifestation the natural biological diversity, which is discrete and determines natural composition different variants of the constitution typology. Somatotype reflects main features in the dynamics of ontogenesis, metabolism, reactivity of the organism. These properties form individual features of the structure and, consequently, functions of the organism, determine its response to ever-changing environmental factors.
Aim – to study relationship between somatotype in the children of 6-8 years and longitudinal dimensions of their bodies.
Material and methods: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, anthropometric measurements included determining length and weight of the body, chest, shoulder, waist and thighs, measuring thickness of the skin and fat folds of the biceps, triceps, forearms, shoulder blades, abdomen, legs and thighs. Determination of somatotype was carried out by W.H. Sheldon: digestive, muscular, thoracic, asthenoid. Attention was focused on the development and ratio of such features as shape of the back, chest, abdomen, legs, state of development the bone, muscle and adipose tissue, statistical analysis.
Results. There are measured and analyzed differences between the longitudinal body sizes in a practically healthy children and children of 6-8 years with hearing impairment depending on their somatotypes. Correlation analysis of a longitudinal body size allowed to determine common for all groups of children tendency to a direct dependence length of the body and torso on the somatotype in the examined children. At the same time, it is shown inverse relationship between somatotype of children with length of the upper and lower extremities, forearms, hands and legs.
Conclusions. Cluster analysis confirmed that formation four subgroups of somatotypes in the children of 6-8 years determined by a longitudinal size of their body. Unlike practically healthy, at the children with disturbance of hearing with asthenoid and thoracic somatotypes, there are no differences between length of the body and length of the forearm, and in the children with thoracic and digestive somatotypes – between lengths of the hand. There is a different relationship between type of somatotype in the children of 6-8 years with a longitudinal size of their body, which did not depend on the gender and presence of hearing impairment. It is confirmed, that children with higher body and body characteristics belong to the muscular or digestive, and with higher extremities – to the asthenoid and thoracic somatotypes.
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